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Uvularia grandiflora, the large-flowered bellwort or merrybells, is a species of flowering plant in the family Colchicaceaenative to eastern and central North America.[1]

Growing to 75 cm (30 in) tall by 30 cm (12 in) broad, it is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial with pendent leaves which are hairy on the undersides. It blooms in mid- to late spring, producing large yellow, solitary or paired, bell-shaped, pendent flowers.[2] The top parts of the plant tend to bend downward due to the weight of the leaves and flowers. The light green stems are round, glabrous, and glaucous and the leaves are perfoliate since the stem appears to come through the leaves at the base. In late summer three capsuled ovaries split open releasing seeds that have attached food bodies called (elaiosome) which are attractive to ants that collect and redistribution the seeds.[3]

The Latin specific epithet grandiflora means “large flowered”.[4]

This plant differs from Uvularia sessilifolia in that the leaves of the latter grow from the stem and its flowers are smaller. U. grandiflora also differs from Uvularia perfoliata, which occurs in eastern North America. The latter has similar large perfoliate leaves, but the flowers have orange-colored bumps on the petals.


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Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names,[a] is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant. Native to Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the cannabis plant has been used as a drug for both recreational and entheogenic purposes and in various traditional medicines for centuries.[18][19][20] Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis, which is one of the 483 known compounds in the plant,[21] including at least 65 other cannabinoids,[22] including cannabidiol (CBD).[23] Cannabis can be used by smokingvaporizingwithin food, or as an extract.[24]

Cannabis has various mental and physical effects, which include euphoriaaltered states of mind and sense of time, difficulty concentrating, impaired short-term memory and body movement,[24] relaxation,[25] and an increase in appetite.[26] Onset of effects is felt within minutes when smoked, and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and eaten.[24][27] The effects last for two to six hours, depending on the amount used.[27]

Cannabis is mostly used recreationally or as a medicinal drug, although it may also be used for spiritual purposes. In 2013, between 128 and 232 million people used cannabis (2.7% to 4.9% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 65).[34] It is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world,[24][34] though it is legal in some jurisdictions, with the highest use among adults (as of 2018) in Zambia, the United States, Canada, and Nigeria.[35]